In this post I would like to share one of the most surprising, remarkable, and beautiful results in the study of discrete dynamical systems. It relates to an unusual ordering of the positive integers:

First, some definitions. The basic object of study in a discrete dynamical system is the orbit. Let be a function from to (think , , , etc.). A sequence of real numbers is an *orbit* (or *the orbit of* ) provided for all . Another way of saying this is that for all where (composition times). We think of the orbit of as motion— hops along the real number line with the new position determined by an application of .

For example, if , then the orbit of 2 is

A *fixed point* is a real number such that the orbit of is constant: Equivalently, it is a point such that .

For example, the function has two fixed points: and . To see that these are fixed points, observe that and . To see that they are the only fixed points, solve for

A value is a *periodic point* of *period* if the orbit of is periodic of period (called a *periodic orbit* or a *cycle*). Equivalently, , but for .

For example, consider the function

The value is a point of period 3 for . Why? We see that: and . So the orbit of 1 is

Now the motivating question: does the function have any other periodic points? If so, of what periods?

For very small values of it may be possible to use algebra to answer this question, but algebra fails quickly (notice that solving requires finding the roots of a polynomial of degree ).

In 1975 James Yorke and his graduate student Tien-Yien Li proved the following remarkable theorem in a paper called “Period Three Implies Chaos” (*Amer. Math. Monthly* **82**, 985-992, 1975). Their theorem implies that has points of every period!

**Theorem** [Li-Yorke]. Let be an interval (possibly ). If a continuous function has a point of period 3, then it has a point of period for every .

That is, if there is a period-three orbit, then there are orbits of every period—chaos!

This theorem amazed the mathematical community. In fact, Li and Yorke’s paper was responsible for introducing the word “chaos” into the mathematical vocabulary. (Now there are several competing definitions of chaos.)

However, little did they know this result had been proved over a decade before, and as a special case of a truly remarkable theorem.

In 1964, the Ukrainian mathematician Aleksandr Nikolayevich Sharkovsky introduced the following ordering on the positive integers (Sharkovsky, A.N. “Coexistence of cycles of continuous mapping of the line into itself.” *Ukrainian Math. J.*, **16**, 61-71, 1964):

First come the odd numbers, then the doubles of the odd numbers, then times each odd number, etc. When all of these values are exhausted, the ordering ends with the powers of 2.

Sharkovsky’s theorem says the following:

**Theorem** [Sharkovsky]. Let be an interval. If a continuous function has a point of period , then it has a point of period for every with .

Notice that the first term in the Sharkovsky ordering is 3. Thus, if we apply Sharkovsky’s theorem with we get the Li-Yorke theorem. But clearly Sharkovsky’s theorem is much deeper. If there is a point of period 9, there is a point of period 6, if there is a point of period 8, there is a point of period 4, and so on.

Finally, I will add that the theorem cannot be strengthened in any obvious way. Without continuity the theorem fails, and it fails for dynamical systems on spaces other than . Moreover, there exist dynamical systems containing a periodic point of period and no periodic point of period for any with .

Very cool. Thanks for sharing that.

wonderful blog. Thanks for sharing.