This is the third part in a 3-part blog post in which we prove that is transcendental.

* Three-step proof that is transcendental*Step 1

Step 2

*Step 3*Recall that in step 1 and step 2 we proved that for any prime sufficiently large and that is a nonzero integer. In this step we will prove that if is large enough, then and hence cannot be a nonzero integer. This will give a contradiction and we will conclude that is transcendental.

** Step 3. **

Recall that . Expanding this using our polynomial

we obtain

Recall that and . So , , and . So we have

and (using the well-known fact that in the limit factorials grow faster than exponentials)

In particular, we can choose the prime large enough so that for , . So

as promised. This yields a contradiction and we conclude that is transcendental.

[...] Three-step proof that is transcendental Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 [...]

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The transcendence of e « Division by Zeroon September 28, 2010at 3:30 pm

[...] Three-step proof that is transcendental Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 [...]

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The transcendence of e (part 2) « Division by Zeroon November 4, 2010at 10:27 pm